1st Century BCE 10
Herod institutes heavy taxes to pay for building of Roman port, Caesaria, fortresses (e.g. Tiberias) and cities all over the land (e.g. Herodion) and refurbishing of Temple in Jerusalem.
Herod executed his 2 sons, suspected of disloyalty.
Boethos family from Egypt rivals priestly dynasty of Hannan.
Temple priesthood rife with nepotism, other political abuse.
Popular revolt against Romans in Galilee suppressed. But spirit of revolt grows.
Herod executes son Antipater on suspicion of disloyalty. Names Archealus, another son, as successor.
Herod dies and consequent rebellion controlled by Archealus whose leadership is confirmed in Rome. [a]
Varus, governor of Syria suppresses further revolts in Judea and Galilee; crucifies 2,000 Jews.
Augustus finally divides region among Herod's 3 sons:
Archelaus- Judea, Samaria, Idumea;
Herod Antipas- Galilee
800 Jews of Rome protest against Herod's successors.
Permit given to dispatch half-shekel to Temple in Jerusalem.
Jews of Rome permitted not
to receive wheat ration on Shabbat.
Herod favors Greek culture; revives Olympic Games. Jewish law neglected.
Excavations attest to opulent homes in Jerusalem during Herod's period, despite heavy taxes.
Herod installs Roman eagle in Temple; selects own high priests.
During this period, Hillel who had brought Jewish tradition to its former strength formulates principles for broadening interpretation of Torah.
Among Hillel's decrees is the Prozbul, by which loans are channeled through a court, not subject to sabbatical year constrictions. Thus was economic distress alleviated.
Caesarea officially opened by Herod, with pagan temple