1st Century BCE
In exchange for support of Egypt campaign, Caesar appoints Hyrcanus ethnarch of Jews, Antipater as procurator of Judea.
Idumean Herod (Antipator's son) defeats and executes a Jewish army in Galilee. Civil war averted by Hyrcanus. Herod appointed administrator of Coele-Syria and Samaria. Persecuted patriots.
Jews and Herod separately appeal to Anthony in Rome for recognition. Herod (and brother) Phasael appointed tetrarchs in Judea. Hyrcanus stripped of Political authority; deposed.
Son of Aristobulous II, Antigonus, helps Parthians; Judea falls to them. Hyrcanus II, Phasael captured; Herod flees. Antigonus now king of Judea, high priest.
Roman Senate bids Herod to wrest control from Antigonus.
Herod conquers all of Eretz Israel but Jerusalem.
Herod overruns Jerusalem; Antigonus beheaded. Marries Maramme: granddaughter of Hasmonean John Hyrcanus II.
High priest Aristobulous deposed, killed by Herod. Jewish nobles in Jerusalem killed.
Herod pledges allegiance to Octavian. Rules with terror, despotism, and ruthlessness.
Mariamme executed along with surviving male members of the Hasmonean family.
Jews in Rome number 10,000 plus: build several synagogues. Spread from Rome to Italy, Spain, N. Africa, after being expelled.
Jewish soldiers assist Caesar in Egypt. (Alexandria)
Dead Sea Scrolls interpret events of this period, predict eschatological appearances of Messiah.
Power of Sanhedrin diminished by Roman proconsul Gabinius. Respected family of Beteira temporarily given leadership responsibilities.
Shamai, respected member of high court, establishes own school of study.
Herod's despotic rule, partly function of his lack of popularity based on his Edumean ancestry. Originally married Mariamme to overcome this disability.
During this period of Herod, and thereafter, only obscure men held office as high- priest.
Hillel begins his own school of study, a departure from previous tradition so as not to give the impression of strengthening Sanhedrin. Ushered in period of the Tannaim (1st generation Talmudists) [b]
Remnants of Jewish army (sent by Herod) settle in Arabia after defeat in battle.
Caesar agrees to power sharing with Crassus and Pompeii (Triumvirate)
(58) Caesar conquers Gaud
(52) Founding of Paris
(51) Cleopatra, last queen of House of Ptolemy
Julius Caesar assumes dominion of Rome. Becomes uncontested head of Roman Empire (48).
(46) Julian calendar fixed.
Julius Caesar- "emperor for life"- is murdered.
Romans construct straight paved roads for mobilizing military machine, facilitating trade.
Roman army defeats Parthians.
(36) Cleopatra visits Judea.
Egypt falls to Roman control. Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide.
Octavian, now Augustus, and Roman Emperor: promotes traditional religion; age glorified in Virgil's epic Aeneid. [c]