13th Cent. BCE
Israelites in the Wilderness
12th Cent. BCE
Period of the Judges (1)
[Book of Judges]
Exodus according to other sources.
The Stela of Moneptah [c] recalls the Egyptian king having destroyed Israel, a first archeological indication of their presence.
Moses dies (4) Israelites cross Jordan into Canaan.
Philistines settle on coast of Canaan.
Israelite conquest of Canaan Eretz Yisrael appointed to tribes.
Ramses III -campaign against Philistine.
Israel comprises loose federation of 12 tribes. [b] Ruled by Judges. [e]
Israelite settlement in upper Galilee.
Philistines set up network of 5 cities; control trade routes (maritime and land).
Deborah. Rules for 40 years
During this period: Israelite conquests of territory from Philistines (Shangar, Samson); Ammonites (Jepthah); Moabites (Ehud); Mideonites (Gideon).
Development of written alphabet in Canaan (2c)
Moab and Edom emerge as new political centers.
Middle Babylonian of Assyrian periods.
Hittite library has tablets in 8 languages
Emergence of Mexican culture.
Destruction of Hittite and Myeaenian kingdoms.
Trojan war- destruction of Troy.
Beginning of Ulmki culture in Mexico.
Nebuchadnezzar I; king of Babylon.
Pressure of Armenians on Babylon.
Phoenicians import tin from England.
Ethiopia emerges as an independent power.
11th century BCE
[Book of Samuel]
Shrines at Shechem, Gilgal, Bet-El, and Shiloh used for worship by tribes.
Destruction of temple at Shiloh (Battle of Aphek)
Avimelech, Priest of Neb.
Bet Shemesh destroyed by fire.
Samuel the Prophet. Israelites demand king
Reign of Saul [d] (1025-1004) fights Philistines (David & Goliath) (David & Jonathan)
Saul and Jonathan fall at Mt. Gilboa.
Kingdom of David (1004-964)[e].
Jewish "literature" emerges:
"Song of Sea" (Ex. 15)[a]
"Song of Deborah" (Judges 5)[b]
"Jacob's Testament" (Gen. 49)[c]
God is worshipped as Israel's national God but Canaanite influences on the people are strong. Prophets inveigh against Baal worship.
Decline of Egypt (21st Dynasty)
Tilgath- Pileser founds Assyrian Empire.
Monumental temples in Assur (Babylon)
Chou Dynasty in China.