1st Century CE
The period of the Tannaim
1st Century CE
Pontius Pilate appointed governor of Judea; insults Jews by bringing pagan images to Jerusalem; later withdraws them.
Jesus of Nazareth who proclaimed imminence of G-d's kingdom on earth as relief to poor, crucified by Pontius Pilate on charges of treason.
Agrippa (son of Herod) is named king of Judea.
Jews rebel against Caligula's ruling that gold statue of himself be set up in Jerusalem Temple, (in reprisal for Yavne uprising against altar of himself).
Followers of Jesus preempt early Christians, Paul preaches that his death atones for sins of mankind.
Agrippa is granted rule over Judea and Samaria; kingship restored due to Agrippa's favor with Claudius. Agrippa I respects Jewish sensibilities by adhering to Jewish practice. Possible alliance with neighboring vassal kings thwarted.
Agrippa II succeeds Agrippa I, but Judea restored to provincial rule under procurator Fadus.
Procurator Tiberius Alexander crucifies 2 sons of Zealot leader Judah of Gamla.
(50-100) Simon the Apostle spreads Christianity.
Philo of Alexandria write allegorical interpretations of Torah, based on Septuagint translation. His doctrine of Logos will later influence Christian theology.
Jews of Alexandria attacked on pretext of not wanting to worship Caligula. Pogroms.
Also persecution of Jews in Seleucia on the Tigris.
Philo heads delegation to Rome.
Further riots in Alexandria when Agrippa passes through from Rome to Judea.
King of Adiabene (Babylonia, Persia) converts to Judaism. His dynasty will support Jewish revolt against Rome.
(49-50) Jews of Rome expelled by Claudius.
Under anti-Semitic rule of Lysimachus and Apion, Jews of Egypt number c. 1 million.
Jews who have lived in Greece since 3rd cent. BCE reside in all major cities and islands.
Raids and persecutions of Alexandria's Jews.
The "Wisdom of Solomon" is composed; a Greek book written by a Jews that asserts that the good are rewarded and pass into immortality.
"4 Maccabees," composed in Greek, attributes martyrdom to control of emotions by reason.
The period of the Tannaim begins (a). They were the earliest redactors of the Mishna (Oral Law, Talmud).
First generation includes:
Akaviah ben Mahalel,
R. Gamliel I Haraken,
R. Hanania Sgan Hacohanim,
R. Shimon ben Gamiel I
R. Shimon b. Gamliel I succeeded father as Nasi; R. Yochanan b. Zakai was head of Beit Din (Rabbinical court).
Among Pharisee, supporters are havurot, groups that observe Temple laws scrupulously.
Jewish education in Judea stresses literacy in reading, Jewish law and history.
New Emperor Caligula, declares himself a god and begins reign of terror.
Caligula dies before he can react to Jewish uprising.
(43) Founding of London
Indian Bhagavad-Gita text reflects caste system ethic.
Romans learn use of soap from Gauls.
Nero succeeds Claudius.