1860] 1861] 1862] 1864] 1865] 1866] 1867] 1868] 1869]

Listing of Additional Information on the Herzl Timeline 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1860

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Theodor Herzl is born on Wednesday, May 2, (10 Iyar 5620) in Pest, in a building next to the Dohany Synagogue.
From Herzl's Autobiographical Sketch (1898)
 

The Alliance Israelite Universelle, the first modern international Jewish organization, is founded in Paris, to defend the civil rights and religious freedom of the Jews all over the world.

Dr. Chaim Lorje, of Frankfurt, forms the Society for the Colonization of Palestine. He tries to recruit men of reputation throughout Europe. Among the rabbis present are Rabbi Judah Alkalai and Rabbi Eliyahu Guttmacher. However, not a single settlement is established. His society will die in 1865.

"Der Israelit", a German Jewish weekly is founded by Marcus Lehmann (1831-1890) in Mainz.

Two other Jewish newspapers also begin in 1860:
"Ha-Melitz" and "Razsvet".

Moshe Sachs sets out on another mission following a twenty-year interlude from his first one. He is sent to collect money for building residential homes in Jerusalem. He is sent by the “Beit Machaseh” organization, which provides for the poor of Jerusalem. Sacks travels through: Egypt, Turkey, Romania, Austria, Hungary, Germany and Russia. The mission is successful and with the money collected the “Batei Machaseh” neighborhood is built in the old city of Jerusalem.

Ernest Laharanne publishes “The New East Question” in French, proposing the acquisition of the Land of Israel from the Turkish Sultan and the establishment of a Jewish state.

 

Abraham Lincoln is elected president of the U.S.

Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian revolutionary, leads the Thousand Red Shirts in conquest of Sicily and Naples.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1861

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The publication of "Die Neuzeit" ("Modern Times"), a German Jewish weekly directed at the Jews of Austria-Hungary begins in Vienna. It is politically liberal and advocates religious reform. It opposes Jewish nationalism and Zionism.

Mishkenot Sha’ananim, the first neighborhood outside of the old city walls of Jerusalem, is dedicated, consisting of a building housing 16 apartments and a windmill. The project is conceived and primarily funded by Sir Moses Montefiore of England, with the help of additional funds from Gershom Kursheedt (1817-1863) and money willed by Judah Touro (1775-1854), the first American Jews to take a serious part in the rebuilding of Eretz Yisrael.

 

Franz Joseph has to grant constitutional reforms. "Oktoberdiplom" and "Februarpatent" concede legislative authority to the parliament.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1862

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Moses Hess, German Socialist, whose views influenced two major political movements, Zionism and Communism, writes "Rome and Jerusalem".

Zvi Hirsch Kalischer, Orthodox rabbi and early Zionist thinker, writes "Derishat Zion" ("Inquiry for Zion"), in which he argues for the redemption of the Jews through the return to Palestine.

Austria-Hungary: Jews are granted residence rights in all municipalities and attain both passive and active electoral rights.

 

Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) is appointed prime minister of Prussia.
More Information.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1864

 

 

 

 

 

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Austria-Hungary: All restrictions on Jewish land ownership are dropped.

 

In Vienna, Michael Etienne and Max Friedländer found the "Neue Freie Presse", which followed a liberal-bourgeois course. Due to excellent journalists like Eduard Hanslick, Ludwig Speidel, Daniel Spitzer, Theodor Herzl and modern journalist and technical methods (between 1869 and 1873 rotary press printing was introduced), the Neue Freie Presse became a world-renowned newspaper under the co-editor and editor-in-chief Moritz Benedikt.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1865

 

 

 

 

 

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The Jewish advance into the Viennese middle class begins.

The "Palestine Exploration Fund" is established in England. It is established by a group of energetic Gentile supporters of Jewish settlement in the Holy Land. Among them is archeologist Charles Warren, who conducted major excavations in Jerusalem and predicted Jewish self-rule in their homeland.

 

Opening of the Ringstrasse in Vienna. "Gründerzeit", the era of stock promotions, numerous joint-stock companies are formed.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1866

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Theodor enters the "Pester Israelitische Normalhauptschule", one of the primary schools maintained by the Jewish community of Pest.
From Herzl's Autobiographical Sketch (1898)
 

Salomon Sulzer (1804-1890), Austrian composer of Reform liturgical music, publishes his second volume of "Shir Zion", the earliest complete and organized repertory in Hebrew to be arranged for cantor and male choir. He officiates in the Vienna "Stadttempel" from 1826 to 1881.

The Doresh Zion (Seeker of Zion) Orphanage is established by strong supporters of the Hibbat Zion movement. Its name implies that the verse, “Zion has no seeker” (Jeremiah 30:17) describing the destruction, is no longer true.

Moses Montefiore makes his sixth pilgrimage to Eretz Israel, trying to negotiate better treatment for the Jewish residents there. During his stay he decides on the addition of another house containing four apartments to the Mishkenot Sha’ananim neighborhood.

 

War between Austria and Prussia because of differences in the politics concerning Germany.
July, 3: Battle at Königgrätz (Sadowa). Franz Joseph has to forgo political ambitions in Germany.

But the monarchy moves rapidly to modern constitutionalism.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1867

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Jews of Austria receive full rights as the new constitution of Austria-Hungary abolishes religious discrimination.

Rabbi Eliyahu Guttmacher joins Zvi Hirsch Kalischer in publishing Shalom Yerushalayim (Peace of Jerusalem), an addition to Rabbi Kalisher’s Derishat Zion.

Rabbi Yosef Natonek (1813-1892) follower of the Hatam Sofer and Rabbi Yehuda Alkalai, travels to Constantinople to obtain a charter from the Turkish authorities for the reclamation of land in Eretz Yisrael for Jewish settlement. The effort is unsuccessful.

The Reform movement removes any reference of Zion from its prayer services. The movement views Judaism as a religious, not a national, entity.

 

Compromise between Austria and Hungary ("Ausgleich"). The Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy liberalizes itself into a multinational empire. A constitution grants broad powers to Parliament and establishes equal rights under the law for all, regardless of religious creed.

June, 8: Franz Joseph is crowned King of Hungary.

Karl Marx writes the first volume of "Das Kapital", his major work.

Charles Warren, an Englishman, undertakes the first archaeological explorations in Jerusalem.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1868

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jakob Herzl registers his son Theodor as a member of the Chevra Kadisha in Budapest.
 

The liberal trend in Austria continues with the annulment of the agreement with the Vatican, resulting in the removal of education and matrimonial law from church control. The principle of legal equality without regard to religion is strengthened.

After the emancipation of the Jews, the Hungarian government convenes a General Jewish Congress to regulate internal Jewish affairs.

"Ha-Shahar" ("The Dawn"), a Hebrew monthly, begins in Vienna. Founded and edited by Perez Smolenskin (c. 1840-1885), it becomes the leading Hebrew literary exponent of the later Haskalah movement and of early Jewish nationalism. It will cease publication in 1885.

Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer gives Napoleon III a detailed proposal for the “settlement of Jerusalem and the preservation of the nation” in the Holy Land.

 

The "May Laws" in Austria-Hungary establish secular jurisdiction in marriage issues and the principle of secular control in education.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1869

 

 

 

 

 

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The North German Confederation, under the leadership of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, abolishes all remaining civil and political disabilities due to differences in religious affiliation.

Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I visits Jerusalem on his way to the opening of the Suez Canal, as gesture to the Ottoman Empire and the rising importance of Jerusalem and Palestine in international affairs.

 

Opening of the Suez Canal.

In Austria-Hungary the school law provides compulsory and free education until the age of fourteen. The school system is taken out of the hands of the clergy and put into the hands of the state.


 

 

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05 Nov 2007 / 24 Heshvan 5768 0