1849] 1851] 1852] 1853] 1855] 1856] 1857] 1858] 1859]

Listing of Additional Information on the Herzl Timeline 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1849

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Theodor Herzl's uncle, first lieutenant Wilhelm Diamant, takes part in the Hungarian revolt.

Achille Fould (1800-1867), son of a Jewish banker is appointed minister of finance by President Louis Napoleon of France.

The Hungarian Jews are granted equal rights. But the emancipation does not take effect; for within two weeks the revolt is crushed.

Moses Montefiore makes his third visit to Eretz Israel.

The Frankfurt Parliament adopts a constitution, which includes religious equality.

Hungary declares its independence. Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) is elected president. Austria and Russia defeat the Hungarian army. Hungary returns to Habsburg rule.
More Information.

The Austrian emperor Franz Joseph I grants a constitution, which includes the statement that "civil and political rights are not dependent on religion."

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1851

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Samson Raphael Hirsch is appointed rabbi of the Adass Yeshurun synagogue in Frankfurt, a post he holds for 37 years until his death. Here he develops his views of neo-Orthodoxy, an educational system embodying the principles of halakhic Judaism in harmony with the modern world.

Benedetto Musolino (1809-1885) publishes "Gerusalemme e il Popolo Ebreo" - "Jerusalem and the Jewish People". He is influenced by the prevailing nationalist ideas which claim the right of all people for self-determination.

Franz Joseph drafts a reform policy, which focuses on economy, administration and the improvement of the education system.
31st December: Franz Joseph annuls constitution and basic rights ("Silvesterpatent"). From now on he is an absolute sovereign.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1852

 

 

 

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Judah Alkalai visits England to win support for the settlement of Jews in Palestine as the primary solution of the Jewish problem.

A royal statute grants Jews the right to establish a religious community in Vienna, with the power to tax and to regulate its mode of worship.

The French approve a new constitution and the establishment of the Second Empire. President Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Emperor Napoleon III.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1853

 

 

 

 

 

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Abraham Benisch founds the "Hebrew Observer" as a rival to the "Jewish Chronicle" in London. In 1854 both journals will merge.

Heinrich Graetz (1817-1891) begins the publication of his 11-volume "History of the Jews".

Abraham Mapu (1808-1867), Russian Haskalah educator, writes "Ahavat Zion" ("The Love of Zion"), the first Hebrew novel.

 

The Crimean War begins as Turkey declares war on Russia.

Comte Joseph de Gobineau writes his "Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races", the first systematic presentation of general racist theory.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1855

 

 

 

 

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Moses Montefiore visits the Holy Land for the fourth time. During his stay he buys land for agricultural purposes, under the guise of philanthropic activity. Among his acquisitions are Mishkenot Sha’ananim, a settlement outside of the old city walls in Jerusalem, land outside of Safed and Tiberias, and a large orchard outside of Jaffa. This is the first Jewish orchard in Eretz Yisrael in modern times.

 

Ferdinand de Lesseps, French engineer and diplomat, is granted the concession to build the Suez Canal.

Austria signs a Concordat with the papacy, which allows the Vatican direct control over the Austrian Church, and also a monopoly of primary education and the regulation of marriage

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1856

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Czar Alexander II (1855-1881) of Russia abolishes the cantonist system of recruiting Jews for military service and makes them equal with the rest of the nation regarding military conscription.

"Ha-Maggid", the first Hebrew weekly newspaper begins publication in Lyck, East Prussia. In 1858, David Gordon (1831-1886), will become editor. After the 1881 pogroms in Russia, the paper will advocate Jewish nationalism and settlement in Palestine.

Archduke Maximilian, brother of the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph visits Jerusalem in order to strengthen the ties between the Ottoman and the Austrian empires. He spends two days in Jerusalem. A few months later he sends a bronze statue of Queen Helena as a gift to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.

Ludwig Frankl establishes the Lämel School in Jerusalem.

 

The Congress of Paris brings an end to the Crimean War. The independence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire are recognized by the European Powers. The Ottoman sultan grants guarantees the rights of all subjects.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1857

 

 

 

 

 

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Rabbi Moshe Hamburger (1801-1888), a disciple of the Hatam Sofer, immigrates to Eretz Yisrael. He is seen off by thousands of Hungarian Jews. Hamburger becomes secretary of the Hungarian Kollel, an organization supporting the Hungarian Jews of Jerusalem.

Moses Montefiore makes his fifth pilgrimage to the Holy Land and fine-tunes his plans for Mishkenot Sha’ananim, the land for which he acquired in 1855.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1858

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Jacob Herzl marries Jeanette Diamant.
 

 

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1859

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Birth of Herzl's sister Pauline.
 

The Dohany Street Synagogue in Pest, Hungary, the largest synagogue in Europe (seating: 2.500) is opened. The project was led by Rabbi Low Schwab (1794-1857), who became chief rabbi of Pest in 1836. He fashions a compromise between Orthodox and Reform-minded Jews.

Rabbi David Friedlander (b. 1826) immigrates to the Holy Land under the influence of the Hatam Sofer. He works as a brick-maker, and encourages Jews to work in agriculture.

 

Austria invades Sardinia-Piemont. France declares war on Austria and assists the Sardinians. After the lost battle at Solferino Austria has to give up Lombardy.

Henri Dunant witnesses the battle at Solferino and will later be the founder of the Red Cross.


 

 

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05 Nov 2007 / 24 Heshvan 5768 0