1818] 1819] 1822] 1823] 1825] 1826] 1827] 1830] 1831] 1835]
1836] 1837] 1838] 1839] 1840] 1843] 1844] 1845] 1847] 1848]

Listing of Additional Information on the Herzl Timeline 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1818

 

 

 

 

 

 

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King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia excludes Jews from academic positions and dismisses Jewish officials from state positions. He encourages conversion to Christianity and prohibits conversion to Judaism.

The first systematic Reform Synagogue service begins in Hamburg.

Ludwig Börne (1786-1837), German political essayist converts to Christianity. He converts not out of religious conviction but to gain wider acceptance of his views.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1819

 

 

 

 

 

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Anti-Jewish riots - so-called Hep! Hep! riots - break out in Germany. They are the result of accusations of economic exploitation of Christians by Jews resulting from the granting of commercial and civil rights to Jews. Authorities exploit the riots to argue that emancipation of the Jews increases social tensions. The slogan Hep! Hep! is from crusader origin and and developed from the initials of the words "Hierosolyma est perdita" - "Jerusalem is lost".

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1822

 

 

 

 

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The first issue of "Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judentums", the journal of the Society for Culture and the Scientific Study of the Jews, is published. The journal is edited by Leopold Zunz.

The total population in Palestine is unchanged at approximately 300,000, while the Jewish population has grown to 24,000.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1823

 

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A group of Chabad Hasidim emigrate from Europe to Palestine and settle in Hebron. The community remains in Hebron until the Arab riots of 1929.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1825

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Influential American Jew, Mordecai Noah (1785-1851), issues an appeal to European Jewry to establish a Jewish state named “Ararat” on the Grand Island of the Niagara River, the project is never seen to have real merit, and ultimately never gets off the ground.

Heinrich Heine (1797-1856), German poet and essayist is baptized into Christianity. He refers to the act as an "entrance ticket to European culture" - "Entréebillet zur europäischen Kultur". His conversion fails to advance his academic career, and in 1831 he leaves for Paris, never returning to Germany. Heinrich Heine is recognized as one of Germany's greatest men of letters.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1826

 

 

 

 

 

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In Vienna the synagogue in the Seitenstettengasse (Stadttempel) is opened. The building was designed by the famous Austrian Biedermeier architect Josef Kornhäusel. Led by Isaac Noah Mannheimer (1793-1865), its moderate Reform services held in Hebrew without organ music and marked by decorum, become the model for all synagogues in the Austrian Empire. Mannheimer's congenial partner is cantor Salomon Sulzer.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1827

 

 

 

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Moses Montefiore (1784-1885) makes his first pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He is deeply affected and becomes a strictly observant Jew. During his stay he establishes a friendship with Muhammad Ali Pasha, Sultan of Egypt, a relationship, which he utilizes in later years to assist Jewish causes.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1830

 

 

 

 

 

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Moshe Sachs (1800-1870) is the first immigrant of his day to Eretz Israel from Germany. Sachs is greatly affected by Rabbi Moshe Sofer's emphasis on the importance of immigrating to Israel. He settles in Jerusalem and dedicates himself to achieving economic productivity (in contrast with dependence on charity from overseas) of the Jewish settlement in Eretz Israel and to the development of agricultural in Eretz Israel.

 

Revolution in France brings Louis Philippe, the "Citizen King" to the throne.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1831

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Gabriel Riesser (1806-1863), leader of the German Jewish emancipation, demands Jewish emancipation in his "Verteidigung der bürgerlichen Gleichstellung der Juden" ("Defense of the Civil Equality of Jews"). He argues for Jewish citizenship in Germany as a matter of right and not in exchange for conversion to Christianity.

Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864), German composer, composes "Robert le Diable", the first in his series of successful French operas. Meyerbeer assists other composers, including Richard Wagner. He remains faithful to Judaism and so, is attacked by Richard Wagner.

 

The Egyptian leader Muhammad Ali Pasha ejects the Ottomans from Palestine. Until the return of the Ottomans in 1841, the social and legal status of Christians and Jews is improved under Egyptian rule.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1835

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  Birth of Jacob Herzl, Theodor Herzl's father.  

Moshe Sachs sets out on an expedition to raise funds and support for the establishment of a Jewish agricultural settlement in the Holy Land.

Jacques Halevy's (1799-1862) opera "La Juive" creates a new French opera form.

Abraham Geiger begins publishing the "Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift für jüdische Theologie" (The Scientific Journal for Jewish Theology), a major platform for the Reform movement.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1836

 

 

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  Birth of Jeanette Diamant, Theodor Herzl's mother.  

Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalisher (1795-1874), student of Rabbi Yaakov of Lissa (Lorberbaum) and Rabbi Akiba Eger of Posen, appeals to Anselm von Rothschild (1773-1855) to purchase the Land of Israel, or at the very least the Temple Mount.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1837

 

 

 

 

 

 

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An earthquake in Safed destroys much of the city. Some 5,000 people are killed, of which 4,000 are Jewish. Many of the surviving rabbinic scholars relocate to Hebron and many Perushim to Jerusalem, leaving the Jewish community in Safed numbering only 1,500. Among the relocated persons is Israel Bak with his printing press that he reestablishes in Jerusalem. Rabbi Moshe Sofer connects the disaster to the development of Safed at the expense of Jerusalem.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1838

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Rabbi Yohanan Zvi Shank (d. 1884), disciple of Rabbi Moshe Sofer, immigrates to the Holy Land. He soon becomes a major figure in the building and financial support of Jerusalem. He is one of the first to settle outside of the Old City walls, in the Nahalat Shiva neighborhood, which will be established in 1869.

Abraham Benisch (1811-1878) and others form "Die Einheit" ("The Unity") in Vienna, a secret society whose purpose is to encourage organized Jewish immigration to Palestine.

 

The first British consulate is established in Jerusalem.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1839

top

     

Moshe Sachs returns to Eretz Israel following his mission in Europe.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1840

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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A widespread Messianic prediction sparks a renewed interest in immigration to Eretz Israel (Kol Hator). This prediction is circulated in the Balkans and in Eastern Europe.

Rabbi Yehuda Alkalai (1798-1878) of Sarajevo, Bosnia, begins spreading his belief that this is the time of the Messiah. He believes in the concept of “Political Redemption,” involving the settling of the land of Israel and in an actual “Return to Zion.”

Jewish population of Eretz Israel reaches 10,000. Jews become a majority in Jerusalem numbering 7000.

Dr. Eliezer Levi (Louis Loewe) (1809-1888), disciple of Rabbi Moshe Sofer, becomes Moses Montefiore’s secretary. He is one of the driving forces behind Montefiore’s efforts in developing and assisting the Yishuv in Eretz Israel

Heinrich Heine writes "Der Rabbi von Bacherach", a historical novel in which he defends the cause of Jewish emancipation.

The synagogue in Dresden, designed by the Protestant architect Gottfried Semper, is opened. His treatment of the synagogue interior is believed to be the introduction of Oriental Revival architecture. Rabbi Zacharias Frankel (1801-1875) is the community leader.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1843

 

 

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Rabbi Yehuda Alkalai publishes Minchat Yehuda (Yehuda’s Offering). In the book he elaborates on the need for human initiatives, which will hurry the coming of the Redemption.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1844

 

 

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The Christadelphians, a Christian Zionist group, is founded in England. It supports the Jews’ return to Zion. The group supports the Hibbat Zion movement, which assists the Jews in their efforts to resettle the Holy Land.

 

Samuel F. B. Morse uses his telegraph system to send the first famous message, "What hath God wrought?" from Washington D.C. to Baltimore.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1845

 

 

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A conference of 31 rabbis interested in Reform, the Reform Rabbinical Conference, is held in Frankfurt.

 

Failure of the potato crop leads to the Great Famine in Ireland. During 1845-1846, it kills nearly 1 million Irish and drives another million abroad.

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1847

 

 

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Establishment of the Austrian consulate in Jerusalem. Fifteen Austrian consuls will serve until 1915. Two of them enjoy special relationships with the Jewish community: Count Josef Pizzamano and Count Bernhard Caboga-Cerva.

 

 

Year
 
Theodor Herzl
 
Jewish History & Culture
 
General History & Culture

1848

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Jewish doctor, Adolf Fischhof (1816-1893) , is a leader in the Viennese revolution of 1848. He is the first speaker to address the crowd at the building of the "Niederösterreichische Landtag" on March 13, 1848. After the suppression of the revolution in 1849, he is granted amnesty but does not again enter public life. Some of his political theories and plans, however, continue to have influence.
More information.

The Jewish student Ludwig Frankl writes during his guard duty the poem "The University", which is printed as the first literary work without censure.

Among the fallen of the early days of the revolution there are two Jews. Their contribution is viewed as a step towards equality and emancipation.
Hermann Jellinek, brother of the Viennese chief rabbi Adolf Jellinek, is executed at the age of 26 on account of his association with the Hungarian national movement.

 

 

February: Revolution of workers in France. In June, the counterrevolution subdues the workers. In December Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873) becomes president of the Second French Republic.
More information.

March: Liberal and democratic inspired revolutions in the German states. In May, the Frankfurt Parliament drafts a constitution for a united Germany, but the attempt fails.

The liberal revolution in Austria causes the abdication of emperor Franz Ferdinand and the resignation of State Chancellor Metternich, the hated symbol of suppression.
Franz Joseph (1830-1916) succeeds through the counterrevolution and becomes emperor.

Throughout the year, political and social rebellions sweep Italy, Bohemia, Hungary, Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein. They fail.

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish the "Communist Manifesto".


 

 

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05 Nov 2007 / 24 Heshvan 5768 0