A Brief Chronology of Antisemitism

Adapted and Updated from: "Anti-Semitism", Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1974)

3rd cent. B.C.E.

Manetho, Greco-Egyptian historian, says Jews were expelled from Egypt as lepers.

38 C.E.

Anti-Jewish riots in Alexandria (Egypt): many Jews killed, and all the Jews were confined to one quarter of the city.

19 C.E.

Emperor Tiberius expels the Jews from Rome and Italy.

66 C.E.

Massacre of the Jews of Alexandria (Egypt) in which 50,000 were killed.

1st cent. C.E.

Apion of Alexandria surpasses other Hellenistic anti-Semites in the crudeness of his fabrications.

200

Tertullian, Church Father, writes his anti-Jewish polemic in Latin Adversus Judaeos.

325

After the ecumenical council, Nicaea, the Christian Church formualtes its policy toward the Jews: the Jews must continue to exist for the sake of Christianity in seclusion and humiliation.

386-387

John Chrysostom, Church Father in the East, violently anti-Jewish, delivers eight sermons in Antioch.

438

Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the East, legalizes the civil inferiority of the Jews.

468

Persecutions of the Jews in Babylonia.

c. 470

Jews persecuted in Babylonia by Firuz, the exilarch, and many Jews killed and their children given to Mazdeans.

535-553

Emperor Justinian I issues his novellae to Corpus Juris Civilis expressing his anti-Jewish policy.

612

Visigothic king Sisebut of Spain inaugurates a policy of forcible conversion of all Jews in the kingdom.

624-628

Jewish tribes of Hejaz (Arabia) destroyed by Muhammad.

628

Dagobert I expels Jews from Frankish kingdom.

632

Heraclius, Byzantine emperor, decrees forced baptism of all Jews in the Byzantine empire.

632

Official Church doctrine on conversion of Jews in Spain formulated.

638

Visigothic king Chintila compels the sixth council of Toledo to adopt resolution proclaiming that only Catholics may reside in the kingdom Spain.

694-711

All Jews under Visigothic rule in Spain declared slaves, their possessions confiscated and the Jewish religion outlawed.

717-20

Caliph Omar 11 introduces series of discriminatory regulations against the dhimmi, the protected Christians and Jews, among them the wearing of a special garb.

1009-13

Fatimid caliph Al-Hãkim in Erez Israel issues severe restrictions against Jews.

1012

Emperor Henry 11 of Germany expels Jews from Mainz, the beginning of persecutions against Jews in Germany.

1096-99

First Crusade. Crusaders massacre the Jews of the Rhineland (1096).

1144

Blood libel at Norwich (England); first record, blood libel.

1146

Anti-Jewish riots in Rhineland by the Crusaders of the second Crusade.

1147

Beginning of the brutal persecutors of the of North Africa under the Almohads, lasted until 1212.

1182

King Philip Augustus of France decrees the expulsion of the Jews from his kingdom and the confiscation of their real estate.

1190

Anti-Jewish riots in England: massacre at York,and other cities.

1215

Fourth Lateran Council introduces the Jewish Badge.

1235

Blood libel at Fulda, Germany.

1236

Severe anti-Jewish persecutions in western France.

1240

Disputation of Paris which led to the burning of the Talmud.

1242

Burning of the Talmud at Paris.

1255

Blood libel at Lincoln, England.

1263

Disputation of Barcelona.

1290

Expulsion of the Jews from England, the first of the great general expulsions of the Middle Ages.

1298-99

Massacre of thousands of Jews in 146 localities in southern and central Germany led by the German knight Rindfleisch.

1306

Expulsion of Jews from France.

1306-20

Pastoureaux ("Shepherds"), participants of the second Crusade in France against the Muslims in Spain, attack the Jews of 120 localities in southwest France.

1321

Persecutions against Jews in central France in consequence of a false charge of their supposed collusion with the lepers.

1321-22

Expulsion from the kingdom of France.

1336-39

Persecutions against Jews in Franconia and Alsace led by lawless German bands, the Armleder.

1348-50

Black Death Massacres which spread throughout Spain, France, Germany and Austria, as a result of accusations that the Jews had caused the death of Christians by poisoning the wells and other water sources.

1389

Massacre of the Prague (Bohemia) community.

1391

Wave of massacres and conversions in Spain and Balearic Islands.

1394

Expulsion from the kingdom of France.

1399

Blood libel in Poznan.

1411-12

Oppressive legislation against Jews in Spain as an outcome of the preaching of the Dominican friar Vicente Ferrer.

1413-14

Disputation of Tortosa (Spain). The most important and longest of the Christian-Jewish disputations the consequence of which was mass conversions and intensified persecutions.

1421

Persecutions of Jews in Vienna and its environs, confiscation of their possessions, and conversion of Jewish children, 270 Jews burnt at stake, known as the Wiener Gesera (Vienna Edict). Expulsion of Jews from Austria.

1435

Massacre and conversion of the Jews of Majorca.

1438

Establishment of mellahs (ghettos) in Morocco.

1452-3

John of Capistrano, Italian Franciscan friar, incites persecutions and expulsions of Jews from cities in Germany.

1473

Marranos of Valladolid and Cordoba, in Spain massacred.

1474

Marranos of Segovia, Spain, massacred.

1480

Inquisition established in Spain.

1483

Torquemada appointed inquisitor general of Spanish Inquisition. Expulsion of Jews from Warsaw.

1490-91

Blood libel in La Guardia, town in Spain, where the alleged victim became revered as a saint.

1492

Expulsion from Spain.

1492-93

Expulsion from Sicily.

1495

Expulsion from Lithuania.

1496-97

Expulsion from Portugal: mass forced conversion.

1506

Massacre of Marranos in Lisbon.

1510

Expulsion of Jews from Brandenburg (Germany).

1516

Venice initiates the ghetto, the first in Christian Europe.

1531

Inquisition established in Portugal.

1535

Jews of Tunisia expelled and massacred.

1541

Expulsion from the kingdom of Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities.

1544

Martin Luther, German religious reformer, attacks the Jews with extreme virulence.

1550

Expulsion from Genoa (Italy).

1551

Expulsion from Bavaria.

1553

Burning of the Talmud in Rome.

1554

Censorship of Hebrew books introduced in Italy.

1556

Burning of Marranos at Ancona, Italy.

1567

Expulsion from the republic of Genoa (Italy).

1569, 1593

Expulsion from the Papal States (Italy).

1614

Vincent Fettmilch, anti-Jewish guild leader in Frankfort, Germany, attacks with his followers the Jews of the town and forces them to leave the City.

1624

Ghetto established at Ferrara (Italy).

1648-49

Massacres initiated by Bogdan Chmielnicki, leader of the Cossacks, and peasant uprising against Polish rule in the Ukraine, in which 100,000 Jews were killed and 300 communities destroyed.

1650

Jews of Tunisia confined to special quarters (Hãra).

1655-56

Massacres of Jews during the wars of Poland against Sweden and Russia.

1670

Expulsion from Vienna. Blood libel at Metz (France).

1711

Johann Andreas Eisenmenger writes his Entdecktes Judenthum ("Judaism Unmasked"), a work denouncing Judaism and whlch had a formative influence on modern anti-Semitic polemics.

1712

Blood libel in Sandomierz (Poland) after which the Jews of the'town were expelled.

1715

Pope Pius VI issues a severe "Edict concerning the Jews", in which he renews all former restrictions against them.

1734-36

Haidamacks, paramilitary bands in Polish Ukraine, attack Jews.

1745

Expulsion from Prague.

1768

Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland) together with the Jews from other places who had sought refuge there.

1788

Haidamacks massacre the Jews of Uman (Poland): 20,000 Jews and Poles killed.

1790-92

Destruction of most of the Jewish communities of Morocco.

1791

Pale of Settlement -twenty-five provinces of Czarist Russia established, where Jews permitted permanent residence: Jews forbidden to settle elsewhere in Russia.

1805

Massacre of Jews in Algeria.

1819

A series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany that spread to several neighboring countries (Denmark, Poland, Latvia and Bohemia) known as Hep! Hep! Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany.

1827

Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia: Jewish minors under 18 years of age, known as "Cantonists," placed in preparatory military training establishments.

1835

Oppressive constitution for the Jews in Russia issued by Czar Nicholas 1.

1840

Blood libel in Damascus (The Damascus Affair).

1853

Blood libel in Saratov (Russia), bringing a renewal of the blood libel throughout Russia.

1858

Abduction of a 7-year-old Jewish child, Edgard Mortara, in Bologna by Catholic conversionists (Mortara Case), an episode which aroused univeral indignation in liberal circles.

1878

Adolf Stoecker, German anti-Semitic preacher and politician, founds the Social Workers' Party, which marks the beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Germany.

1879

Heinrich von Treitschke, German historian and politician, justifies the anti-Semitic campaigns in Germany, bringing anti-Semitism into learned circles.

1879

Wilhelm Marr, German agitator, coins the term anti-Semitism.

1881-84

Pogroms sweep southern Russia, beginning of mass Jewish emigration.

1882

Blood libel in Tiszaeszlar, Hungary, which aroused public opinion throughout Europe.

1882

First International Anti-Jewish Congress convened at Dreseden, Germany.

1882

A series of "temporary laws" confirmed by Czar Alexander III of Russia in May, 1882 ("May Laws"), which adopted a systematic policy of discrimination, with the object of removing the Jews from their economic and public positions.

1885

Expulsion of about 10,000 Russian Jews, refugees of 1881-1884 pogroms, from Germany.

1891

Blood libel in Xanten, Germany.

1891

Expulsion from Moscow, Russia.

1893

Karl Lueger establishes in Vienna the anti-Semitic Christian Social Party and becomes mayor in 1897.

1894

Alfred Dreyfus trial in Paris.

1895

Alexander C. Cuza organizes the Alliance Anti-sémitique Universelle in Bucharest, Rumania.

1899

Houston Stewart Chamberlain, racist and anti-Semitic author, publishes his Die Grundlagen des 19 Jahrhunderts which became a basis of National-Socialist ideology.

1899

Blood libel in Bohemia (the Hilsner case).

1903

Pogrom at Kishinev, Russia.

1905

Pogroms n the Ukraine and Bessarabia, perpetuated in 64 towns (most serious in Odessa with over 300 dead and thousands wounded).

1905

First Russian public edition of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion appears.

1906

Pogroms In Bialystok and Siedlce, Russia.

1909-10

Polish boycott against Jews.

1911-13

Menahem Mendel Beilis, blood libel trial at Kiev.

1912

Pogroms in Fez (Morocco).

1915

Ku Klux Klan, rascist organization in the U.S., refounded.

1917-21

Pogroms in the Ukraine and Poland. 1) Pogroms by retreating Red Army from the Ukraine (spring, 1918), before the German army. 2) Pogroms by the retreating Ukraine army under the command of Simon Petlyura, resulting in the deaths of over 8,000Jews. 3)Pogroms by the counter revolutionary "White Army" under the command of General A.I. Denikin (fall, 1919) in which about 1,500 Jews were killed. 4) Pogroms by the "White Army" in Siberia and Mongolia (1919). 5) Pogroms by anti-Soviet bands in the Ukraine (1920-21), in which thousands of Jews were killed.

1919

Abolishment of community organization and non-Communist Jewish institutions in Soviet Russia.

1919

Pogroms in Hungary: c. 3,000 Jews killed.

1920

Adolf Hitler becomes Fuehrer, of the National-Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP), later known as National Socialist.

1920

Henry Ford I begins a series of anti-Semitic articles based on the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, in his Dearbon Independent.

1924

Economic restrictions on Jews in Poland.

1925-27

Adolf Hitier's Mein Kampf appears.

1933

Adolf Hitler appointed chancellor of Germany. Anti-Jewish economic boycott: first concentration camps (Dachau, Oranienburg, Esterwegen and Sachsenburg).

1935

Nuremberg Laws introduced.

1937

Anti-Semitic legislation in Rumania.

1937

Discrimination against Jews in Polish universities.

1938

After Anschluss, pogroms in Vienna, anti-Jewish legislation introduced: deportations to camps in Austria and Germany.

1938

Charles E. Coughlin, Roman Catholic priest, starts anti-Semitic weekly radio broadcasts in U.S.

1938

Kristallnacht, Nazi anti-Jewish outrage in Germany and Austria (Nov. 9-10, 1938): Jewish businesses attacked, synagogues burnt, Jews sent to concentration camps.

1938

Racial legislation introduced in Italy (Nov. 17, 1938). Anti Jewish economic legislation in Hungary.

1939

Anti-Jewish laws introduced in the Protectorate (Czechoslovakia).

1939

Outbreak of World War 11 (Sept. 1, 1939), Poland overrun by German army: pogroms in Poland; beginning of the Holocaust.

1940

Nazi Germtny introduces gassing.

1940

Formation of ghettos in Poland: mass shootings of Jews: Auschwitz camp, later an extermination camp, established; Western European Jews under Nazis. Belzec extermination camp established.

1940

Algerian administration applies social laws of Vichy.

1941

Germany invades Russia and the Baltic states. Majdanek extermination camp established. Chelmno and Treblinka extermination camps established. Anti-Jewish laws in Slovakia. Pogroms in Jassy, Rumania. Pogroms and massacres by the Einsatzgruppen and native population in Baltic states and the part of Russia occupied by Germany. Expulsions of Jews from the German Reich to Poland. Beginning of deportation and murder of Jews in France.

1941

Severe riots against Jews in Iraq in consequence of Rashid Ali al-Jilani's coup d'état. Nazi Germany introduces gassing in extermination camps.

1942

Conference in Wannsee, Berlin, to carry out the "Final Solution" (Jan. 20, 1942). Beginning of mass transports of Jews of Belgium and Holland to Auschwitz. Massacres 'In occupied Russia continue. Death camps of Auschwitz, Majdanek and Treblinka begin to function at full capacity: transports from ghettos to death camps. Sobibor extermination camp established.

1943

Germany declared Judenrein. Transports of Jews from all over Europe to death camps. Final liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto (May 16, 1943). Annihilation of most of the ghettos. Transport of Italian Jews to death camps.

1944

Extermination of Hungarian Jewry.

1945

Germany surrenders (May 8, 1945) estimated Jewish victims in the Holocaust 5,820,960.

1946

Pogroms at Kielce, Poland, 42 Jews murdered and many wounded (July 4, 1946).

1948

Jewish culture in U.S.S.R. suppressed and Jewish intellectuals shot.

1948

Pogroms in Libya.

1952

Prague Trials (Slánský): Murder of Yiddish intellectuals in Russia and many Jews disappear or sent to work camps.

1953

Accusation of "Doctors' plot" in the U.S.S.R., cancelled with Stalin's death.

1956

Jews of Egypt expelled.

1967

Arabic version of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion published in Egypt.

1968

Fresh wave of anti-Semitism in Poland; emigration of most of the remaining Jews of Poland.

1969

Jews executed in Iraq.

1970

Leningrad, and other trials of Soviet Jews, who agitate for right to emigrate.

1970-1990

Spread of Neo-Nazi publications in US and other parts of the world denying the Holocaust

1972

Eleven Israeli athletes massacred at the Munich Olympic Games, which continue after a brief memorial ceremony.

1975

UN General Assembly passes a resolution equating Zionism with racism.

1987

First Intifada

1988

Steven Cokely, an adviser to the mayor of Chicago and his link to Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, accuses Jewish doctors of purposely infecting blacks with the AIDS virus in order to further a plan for world domination.

1991

Iraq fires scud missiles at Israel in reaction to allied attacks during first Gulf War

1996

Terror attacks in Israel increase.

1999

Shooting attack on Jewish Community Center in Los Angeles, CA

2000

  • Thirteen Iranian Jews tried as Israeli spies.
  • Outbreak of anti-Israel violence at second ("Al-Aqsa") intifada.

2001

  • The UN World Conference Against Racism in Durban becomes a platform for anti-Israel and anti-Semitic demonstrations by thousands.
  • Coordinated "9/11" attacks against United States targets by Islamic terrorists blamed on Jewish conspiracy.

2002

  • Increase in frequency of attacks on Jews and Jewish sites in Europe

2003

  • Attacks on Jewish targets in Europe, including bombing of a Jewish school in Paris and simultaneous bombings of two synagogues in Istanbul during prayer services.
  • University of Berlin report showing rise of anti-Semitism in Europe released after being suppressed by EU.


 

 

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07 Sep 2005 / 3 Elul 5765 0