Anarchy in Judea - Jewish war - Roman Resistance - R.Yohanan b. Zakai - Siege and destruction of Jerusalem

Year/Time Frame



Canaan/Eretz Israel



Jews Elsewhere



Jewish Culture



General History













































































































































World Jewish Population:









Eretz Yisael:






Egypt, Syria, Anatolia, Babylon:



c. 1,000,000



Rome: 40,000

































1st Century CE












































































































Jewish War Begins




































Anarchy is increasing in Judea as different political groups emerge. Some willing to accede to Roman rule along with freedom of religion and honest relations with procurators. Ex- high priests and Sadducees sought wealth, power. Radical nationalists sought to expel Romans from Judea. Within these groups there were many factions, including the extreme groups, the Sicarii.






New procurator Felix has difficulty suppressing Jewish unrest. Settle conflict in Caesaria between Jews and gentiles by sending in troops and massacring Jews.






Paul is jailed by Romans for protection. Paul writes documents arguing for Christianity.






Temple priests in disarray over portioning of tithes.




































Agrippa II encourages local procurator in Caesaria to maintain position despite troubles in city provoked by governor.






Jews of Jerusalem outraged.  Syrian high commissioner convinced of Jewish rebellion sends in troops to Jerusalem. Co-incidentally, a sacrifice of Rome was rejected; sparked reaction against Jews.






Roman troops withdrew after bloody battle; encouraged zealot groups. Factional in- fighting increased.  Anarchy.







































Nero sends massive army under Veopasian, and son Titus, to restore Roman authority.
























































































































































































































































































































Inspired by Jewish revolt Alexandria's Jews seek further civil rights. But in anger, Governor Julius Tiberius turns on Jews. Thousands slaughtered.






Tacitus, the historian, records Jewish Revolt.

















































































Roman legions destroy Armenian capital, Artaxata.






Ming Ti spreads Bhuddism.

















































































Burning of Rome.



1st Century CE


























































































































































































Vespasian conquers Galilee. Commander Joseph Ben Mattathius (Josephus) captured; persuades captors to chronicle the War.






R. Yochanan Ben Zakai (last disciple of Hillel) negotiates agreement with Vespasian to allow continuance of Sanhedrin under R. Gamliel II (as Nasi) in Yavneh.









Titus lays siege to Jerusalem; surrounds wall to starve defenders.






(9th Av) Titus takes Temple Mount and burns down Temple. Last Jewish defenders of upper city overcome.






It is said that 1 million Jews died during the period of the Jewish War.




































































































































Fall of Jerusalem results in removal of aristocracy and high priesthood from Sanhedrin. Jewish courts under rabbinic control are set up.






Disputes between the Houses of Hillel and Shammai are generally found in favor of Hillel.






Sanhedrin operates from Academy in Yavneh; announces calendar to all Jewry.






After destruction of Temple, synagogues function in Caeseria, Dor, Tiberius, Kfar Nahum, etc.






The academy reconstructs Jewish life and permits rituals usually only practiced in Jerusalem, outside of the City.



Shimeon Ben Giora declares freedom for all Jewish slaves (many of who had sold themselves to pay debts).






























Nero commits suicide; Vespasian & Vitellus vie for succession.









Vespasian returns to Rome.



Titus assumes task of suppressing the Jewish Revolt.














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25 Aug 2005 / 20 Av 5765 0