2nd Century BCE 174
2nd Century BCE Maccabee (Hasmonean)
Rebellion (165-137) [a]
2nd Century BCE 158
Jason, son of Orias III, now high priest, offers to increase tribute to Antiochus IV in exchange for a gymnasium and Hellenisation of Jewish capital.
Menelaus bribes Antiochus to become high priest, despite lack of pedigree. Deposes Orias III (who is executed in Antioch 170).
Jason attempts to overthrow Menelaus unsuccessfully. Antiochus IV sees this as a sign of Juden's disloyalty and plunders the temple.
Antiochus failing in Egypt, issues Edict of Intolerance: "All should be one people; everyone should have same laws."
Jerusalem declared heathen city. Temple dedicated to Zeus. Swine sacrificed on 25th of Kislev in its altar. Seleucid garrison in Jerusalem.
Hasmonean family of priests from Judean town of Modiin leads a rebellion against Hellenistic regime. Joined by Hassidim (pietists) attempt to thwart decrees and taxation.
Mattathius slays Jew making heathen sacrifice and begins revolt. (d. 166)
In several battles Judah the Maccabee, eldest of Mattathius' 5 sons, defeats Seleucid- Syrian troops in Judea.
Syrian regent Lysias, sues for peace. Temple rededicated in Jerusalem.
Antiochus V grants religious freedom.
Demetrius I appoints Aleimus, high priest: prevented by Judah from functioning.
Judah defeats Seleucid army (led by Nicanor): makes alliance with Rome.
Judah killed in battle.
After Judah's death, Jonathan assumes command. He sets up rival government.
Jonathan establishes rule in Jerusalem, appointed high priest by Alexander Balas, now Roman proxy leader.
After several power struggles Trypho has Jonathan killed. Succeeded by surviving brother, Simon.
Simon takes over taxation. Judea an independent state.
Simon declared hereditary high priest, military commander, & civil governor.
Jews migrate to Egypt with Orias IV who fled there.
Jewish delegation to Rome marks first documentation of Jews there. Rome's Jews constitute oldest, continuos Diaspora Jewish community in the world.
Jews in Leontopolis, Egypt, make offerings in temple (lasted 200 years).
Hellenism has undergone transformation from philosophy of Epicures (contentment) to hedonism.
Hellenistic influence spread due to favor of Jonias' nephew who offered to raise taxes becoming chief tax collector for Antiochus. Priests indulge.
Jewish reaction to increasing Hellenism- Yossi ben Yoezer and Antigonus of Socho stress fear of Heaven.
Practice of Judaism forbidden by Antiochus' edict under threat of death.
Samaritans now deny association with Jews, and demand a release from Judean tax.
Many Jews offer resistance.
(Hannah and her seven sons)
Festival of Hanukah ordained, marking rededication of the Temple and relaxation of edict. Also beginning of national independence.
Defeat of Nicanor commemorated as Nicanor Day.
Book of Judith composed about this time. Refers to pious Jewish woman who used her beauty to win her way into Assyrian army camp and beheaded general, Holofernes.
Many Jews challenge Jonathan. Diverge into parties and sects:
● Sadducees [a] mainly aristocrats, reject oral law. [e]
● Pharisees [b] devout believers in oral law interpretation of written law. Men of Great Assembly, separatists successors of the Hassidim.
● Essenes [c] Devoutists who lived in seclusion.
Ptolemy VI becomes vassal of Antioch IV.
Rome fails Antiochus' attack on Egypt.
Antiochus IV succeeded by Antiochus V.
Demetrius I seizes power from Lysias and Antiochus V.
Expulsion of orators and philosophers from Rome.
Rome subdues Greek rebellion, destroys Carthage (end of 3rd Punic War.)
Destruction of Corinth (146)
Trypho wrests power of Seleucids from Antiochus VI who replaced Demetrius II
Parthinians conquer Babylonia.