3rd Century BCE
Jewish population, Jerusalem: -120,000
3rd Century BCE 250
Simon the Just. (300-270)
One of the last Men of the Great Assembly. Repaired Temple and fortified Jerusalem.
New arrivals in Egypt settled in garrison towns, Alexandria. Given freedom by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Became thoroughly Hellenized.
Seleucis induces Jews to settle new cities, e.g. Antioch, he founded in Asia and Syria. Antioch Jews form a special political body.
Ptolemy II (re)builds cities such as Acco, Beth Shean, Rabbat Amman (Philadelphia)
Greeks attracted to cities on Mediterranean coast, Transjordan; Jerusalem, Judean villages relatively un- Hellenized.
Jews autonomous; pay taxes to Greek overlord.
Poor farmers driven to slavery due to heavy land tax organized by Jerusalem priesthood.
Egypt's Jews live largely in W. Delta, bear Greek names, and pray in Synagogues.
Greek historian Hecataeus, recalls Exodus and Israelite receiving divine laws, according to Greek interpretations.
Group of Aramaic texts, Enoch I, describes astronomical structure of sky- anticipates lunar calendar, to become major source of contention among Jewish sects. [a]
Hellenistic norm of Pledging property for personal credit entrenched in Jewish law.
Ptolemy II commissions 72 scholars to translate the Torah (5 books of Moses) into Greek, known as Septuagint, served Greek- speaking Jews for centuries.
10 commandments and Shema identifies as Jewish prayer forms in 2nd century BCE Egyptian papyrus.
Prayer becomes increasingly the major form of Jewish worship- even in land of Israel.
Hellenistic Jews engage in pagan practices even as they observe Jewish worship.
Chinese Tao teaches about relationships between good and evil, life and death.
Manetho, Egyptian priest, writes history of Egypt in Greek. 2nd millenium Hyksos identified as Hebrews.
Gauls invade Asia Minor after repulsion by Greeks at Delphi
Ptolemy II defends rule against Seleucids
(1st Syrian War 274-272)
Mauryan king Asoka, adopts Buddhism; attempts to supercede cast hierarchy in India.
264-First Punic War- Rome against Cartage
2nd Syrian War- against Seleucids and Macedonians.
Ptolemies introduce foot-driven potter's wheel and semi enclosed longer- lasting oil lamp.
Ptolemy III in Egypt. 3rd Syrian war for control of Syro- Eretz Israel, against Seleucus II.