Kadesh– קדש

From the Teachings of Nechama Leibovitz

Edited by Itshak Reiner and Shmuel Pearless
Excerpts with permission from Urim Publications


The first cup is poured and the Kiddush is recited.

On Shabbat begin here and include all passages in brackets. On all other evenings, begin with סברי מרנן below:

Quietly: And it was evening and it was morning, The sixth day. And the heaven and the earth and all their hosts were completed. And on the seventh day G-d finished His work which He had made, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And G-d blessed the seventh day and made it holy, for on it He rested from all His work which He, G-d, created to make. (Breishit 1:31,2:1-3)

Shabbat and Creation:

1) The kiddush for pesach that falls on Friday night begins with the section from Breishit that describes the conclusion of the creation of the world. The division into chapters (which originated with a 13th century bishop) results in “The heaven and the earth were completed” becoming the opening verse of chapter 2. According to a number of commentators, this is not correct as it divides what should be one unified subject.

Questions:
1) Explain why this division does not fit the overall structure of the parsha.
2) How does the structure of the kiddush for shabbat support this claim?

Suggested Answers:
1) Shabbat is an integral aspect of the creation of the world. As such, it is illogical to separate the verses dealing with shabbat from the rest of creation.
The relationship between shabbat and creation is further explored in the
answer to question 2.

2) The kiddush for shabbat begins with “And it was evening and it was morning, the sixth day”, the last verse of chapter 1. It would have been logical to begin with verse 2:1 (“And the heaven and the earth were completed…”). This structure reflects the concept that shabbat is integrally connected to the creation that preceded it.

2) “And the heaven and the earth and all their hosts were completed. And on the seventh day G-d finished his work which He had made, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work that he had made.”

“Genivah and the Rabbis discussed this. Genivah said: ‘This may be compared to a king who made a bridal chamber, which he plastered, painted, and adorned; now what did the bridal chamber lack ? A bride to enter it. Similarly, what did the world still lack ? Shabbat.’

The Rabbis said: ‘Imagine a king who made a signature ring: what did it lack ? A signet. Similarly, what did the world lack ? Shabbat.’” (Breishit Rabbah 10:9)

Rashi: “R. Shimon (bar Yochai) said: ‘Mortal man, who does not know exactly his times or his seconds, (who cannot with precise accuracy determine the point of time that marks the division between one time period and that which follows it) must add from the profane to the sacred; but the Holy One Blessed Be He, who knows his times and his seconds, began it to a very hair’s breadth, and it appeared as if He had completed His work on that very day.”

Questions:

1) What is the textual difficulty in Breishit 2:1-3 that all of the commentators address ?
2) What is the conceptual difference between Genivah’s metaphor of the bride and the Rabbis metaphor of the ring ?
3) In what way are the views of Genivah and the Rabbis different from that of R. Shimon bar Yochai ?

Suggested Answers:
1) The first verse of chapter two seems to have an internal conflict. On the one hand, we are told that the creation of the world was completed, presumably on the sixth day. It then proceeds to say that G-d completed his work on the seventh day. Thus, it is unclear whether creation was completed on the sixth or seventh day ? If on the seventh day, it is unclear what was created on that day ?

1) According to the bride metaphor, the six days of creation are meaningless without shabbat. Just as the bridal chamber is purposeless without the bride, so too the world is purposeless without shabbat. Shabbat, the spiritual realm, is the essential goal of creation1. According to the Rabbis, the six days of the week have meaning unto themselves, but are completed by shabbat. This is similar to the ring, which has value as it is, but is completed by the signet.

3) According to Genivah and the Rabbis, G-d’s act on the seventh day served in some fashion as the final step in the creation of the world. According to R. Shimon bar Yochai, there really was no aspect of creation that took place on the seventh day. The creation of the world was actually completed at the last moment of the sixth day. It only appeared to man as if something was created on the seventh day.

When the festival begins on a weekday, begin here:

With your permission, gentlemen, my masters and teachers:
Blessed are You, L-rd, our G-d, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

Blessed are You, G-d, our G-d, King of the universe, who has chosen us from among all people, and raised us above all tongues, and made us holy through His commandments. And You, G-d, our G-d, have given us in love [Sabbaths for rest and] festivals for happiness, feasts and festive seasons for rejoicing [this Shabbat-day and] the day of this Feast of Matzot and this Festival of holy convocation, the Season of our Freedom [in love], a holy convocation, commemorating the departure from Egypt. For You have chosen us and sanctified us from all the nations, and You have given us as a heritage Your holy [Shabbat and] Festivals [in love and favor], in happiness and joy. Blessed are You, G-d, who sanctifies [the Shabbat and] Israel and the festive seasons.

Blessed are You, G-d, our G-d, King of the universe, who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this occasion.

When the festival falls on Saturday night add the following BEFORE the blessing "Who has granted us life" :

Blessed are You, G-d, our G-d, King of the universe, who creates the lights of fire.

Blessed are You, G-d, our G-d, King of the universe, who makes a distinction between sacred and profane, between light and darkness, between Israel and the nations, between the seventh day and the six work-days. You have made a distinction between the holiness of the Shabbat and the holiness of the festival, and You have sanctified the seventh day above the six work-days. You have set apart and made holy Your people Israel with Your holiness. Blessed are You, G-d, who makes a distinction between holy and holy.

Drink the cup of wine while seated, reclining on the left side as a sign of freedom.

1) Shabbat shares some qualities with the holidays. In the kiddush that is recited on a regular shabbat (not shabbat that coincides with a holiday), we say: “For it is this day that is first among all of the days of holy gathering, a remembrance of the exodus from Egypt.”

Question: What is the meaning of this line ? (for help, see Vayikra, chapter 23)

Suggested Answer: Chapter 23 of Vayikra begins with a statement that these are the holidays of G-d (מועדי ה'), and then proceeds to talk about shabbat before mentioning the other holidays. Thus, it appears that shabbat is the first of the holidays. Shabbat and the holidays share the aspect that they are a remembrance of the exodus from Egypt (זכר ליציאת מצרים). Shabbat alone is also a remembrance of the creation (זכר למעשה בראשית).

2) The kiddush for pesach that falls on shabbat also highlights some of the differences between shabbat and the holidays:

Questions:

1) In the kiddush for the holidays, it states: “And you have given us…in love (באהבה) appointed times for rejoicing…”, but after mentioning the specific holiday, the word “with love” (באהבה) is added a second time only if the holiday falls on shabbat. Why ?

2) Why does the word “Israel” (ישראל) precede the word “and the festive seasons” (והזמנים) at the conclusion of the kiddush, but when pesach falls on shabbat, the added word “the shabbat” precedes “Israel” (מקדש השבת וישראל והזמנים) ? (for help, see Vayikra 23:4 and Rashi’s commentary)

Suggested Answers:

1) The gemara (shabbat 10b) indicates that G-d gave shabbat as a gift to the Jewish people: “I have a wonderful gift in my storehouse named shabbat, which I wish to give to Israel. Go and inform them.”…(And Moshe replied:) “The one who gives a gift to his friend must inform him.” If it is true that one who gives a gift is required to inform the recipient, why are we encouraged to give charity anonymously ? Tosafot explains that only when gifts are given out of love does the giver have to inform the recipient. From this Tosafot we can derive that shabbat was given by G-d to Bnai Yisrael as an act of love. We, therefore, add the word ????? to the kiddush only on shabbat.

2) Shabbat was sanctified by G-d as indicated in Breishit 2:3: “And G-d blessed the seventh day and sanctified it…” The holidays, however, are sanctified by the Jewish people through קידוש החודש , the setting of the new month, as described in Vayikra 23:4:

“These are the feasts of the L-rd, which you shall proclaim in their seasons.”

Rashi: Here it is referring to קדוש החודש (the sanctification of the new month as determined by the court based on the testimony of witnesses).

R. Samson Raphael Hirsch learns the same concept from the fact that shabbat is mentioned in Vayikra 23 before the other holidays: “Shabbat is first among the holy gatherings. It is the only one that was set and sanctified by G-d (and not by the court) for eternity.”

Thus, the order makes sense – “Who sanctifies the shabbat, Israel, and the holidays.”

1. This theme can be seen in another teaching of Genivah in the Midrash on Kohelet 5:14: “As he came forth from his mother’s womb, naked shall he return to go as he came, and he shall take nothing for his labor that he may carry away in his hand.”
Genivah said: It is like a fox who found a vineyard that was sealed on all sides but for one hole. He wanted to enter, but was unable. What did he do ? He fasted for three days until he was able to enter through the hole, and he ate and grew fat. When he wanted to leave, he was not able to pass. He fasted again for three days until he was able to pass through.”
Gevinah’s parable relates to this world and the world to come. A person leaves this world physically as he came in. The only thing that he takes with him is the spiritual treasure that he has amassed.
Note: Genivah’s parable of the bride is based on two other meanings of the root כ-ל-ה in the word ויכלו that is used in the Biblical text relating to shabbat. כלה can also refer to a bride and to yearnings, as in כלתה נפשי, “my soul yearns” (Tehillim 84:3) .

2. Nechama provided the following sources to help in answering this question:
Gemara Shabbat 10b: G-d said to Moshe: “I have a wonderful gift in my storehouse named shabbat, which I wish to give to Israel. Go and inform them.”…(And Moshe replied:) “The one who gives a gift to his friend must inform him.”
Tosafot: “One who gives a gift to his friend must inform him.”: Specifically a gift that is given with love, for the recipient does not get embarrassed. But for one who gives charity, in which case the recipient would be embarrassed, “a gift in secret pacifies anger”. (Proverbs 21:14)


 

 

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06 Jul 2005 / 29 Sivan 5765 0