Aliyah - Literally, ascent; immigration of Jews to Eretz Yisrael.
Aliyah Bet - Illegal immigration, also known as Ha'apalah; the operation to bring immigrants to Eretz Yisrael in excess of the number allowed by the British, before World War II until 1948.
Aliyat Hanoar (see Youth Aliyah)
Alliance Israelite Universelle - International Jewish organization, founded in Paris, 1860, to protect Jewish rights as citizens and to promote education and professional development among Jews around the world.
Altalena - Ship carrying immigrants and ammunition from France to Israel in June, 1948 under the command of Etzel and in direct challenge to authority of Tzahal. Destroyed by the IDF, Tzahal, killing 21 on board.
Arab Higher Committee - Radical group established in 1945 by Arab League that represented Palestinian Arab interests, rejecting all compromise on rights of Jews to Eretz Yisrael.
Arab League - Organization of Arab states, founded 1945, works for common political and economic goals, often as pan-Arab opposition to Israel.
Avoda Ivrit - Jewish labour: slogan adopted during pioneering days in the Land of Israel, i.e., to do physical work, not to hire others to do it.
Balfour Declaration - Statement issued by the British Government, 1917 recognizing the - Jewish people's right to a national home in the land of Israel, named for Lord Balfour who signed it on Britain’s behalf.
Berihah - Literally, flight--underground operation 1944-1949 to move Jews from Europe to Eretz Yisrael, largely through means of illegal immigration.
Betar - Zionist youth movement established 1923, emphasizing Hebrew language, culture, and self-defense. Motivated by ideologies of Jabotinsky and Trumpeldor, with goal of Jewish state "on both sides of the Jordan." Name, acronym for "Brit Trumpeldor," also after ancient fortress of Bar Kokhba.
BILU - ( 1882 ) Student organization for aliya. Name consists of initials of the words ( 1883 ) in verse in Isaiah II:5, "House of Jacob, come, let us go up."
Bnai Brith - World's oldest and largest Jewish organization, founded in 1843 in New York, concerned with protecting Jewish interests around the world. Among its key divisions: the Anti-Defamation League, which combats anti-semitism, and Hillel Houses, which foster Jewish life on college campuses.
Bnei Akiva - Religious Zionist youth movement, founded 1929, emphasizing the religious importance of life and work in Israel. Motto: "Torah v'avodah," "Torah and work [in Israel.]."
Camp David Accords - Peace agreement reached between Israel and Egypt, the first between Israel and an Arab neighbor, signed March, 1979. Called for normalization of relations and return of the Sinai to Egypt.
Certificatim - Immigration certificates allocated by the British Mandate Government each year under the quota system.
Declaration Of Independence - Proclamation read in Tel Aviv by David Ben Gurion on May 14, 1948, declaring Eretz Yisrael, the historical and spiritual homeland of the Jewish people, an independent state, to be known as the State of Israel.
Declaration Of Principles - Agreement signed September 13, 1993, between Israel and the P.L.O., affirming mutual recognition and legitimacy. The P.L.O. agreed to end the intifada and terrorist activity and to amend its charter calling for the destruction of Israel. Israel agreed to grant the P.L.O. civil autonomy over the majority of Gaza and the West Bank.
Development Towns - New towns established to provide for urban growth, but essentially to house immigrants since 1950's, succeeding the ma'abarah, transitional camp, which had been widely used since 1948. Its goal was to offer communities both homes and employment opportunities, although it often did not succeed in raising initial lower economic status; used primarily for immigrants of Sephardi and eastern origin.
Eretz Yisrael - Land of Israel; (modern) Jewish homeland to be established in Palestine.
Etzel - Irgun Zvai Leumi - National Military Organization - underground resistance group founded 1931 - split from Hagana. Disbanded 1948, when the State of Israel was established.
Exodus - Aliya Bet ship, left France July 11, 1947, carrying 4,500 immigrants. Challenged and boarded by the British Navy - three Jews were killed. Immigrants were forcibly transported back to Germany in British transport ships. Subject of film and novel of same name by Leon Uris.
Fifth Of Iyar - Date State of Israel was founded - May 15, 1948.
Gadna - Gedudei Noar--Israeli youth corps run by Ministry of Defense for pre-military training of teenagers.
Gola - The Exile (Diaspora) - lands of the dispersion outside of Israel. Also, GALUT.
Gush Emunim - Bloc of the Faithful-- Israeli religious group that believes in "Greater Land of Israel" as fulfillment of Zionist dream and step in redemption process, and therefore opposes return of territory conquered in Six Day War.
Ha'apalah - Aliya Bet - illegal immigration to Israel in ships attempting to break through the British blockade around Palestine before and after World War II. MA'APILIM - illegal immigrants.
Habonim - International youth movement stressing Hebrew language, culture, and settlement in Eretz Yisrael, and with strong ties to kibbutz movement.
Haganah - Underground defense force of pre-state Jewish community in Mandate Palestine. Founded 1920, ceased operation after founding of State of Israel.
HALUTZ - The Jewish pioneer in the Yishuv, who reclaimed the land in Israel, built roads and established new settlements.
Hapo'el Hatza'ir - The Young Worker--Eretz Yisrael Labor Party, founded 1905 by pioneers of Second aliyah, stressing Jewish labor as Zionist value. First indigenous workers' party, whose members helped found first kibbutz and first moshav.
Hashomer - Jewish defense organization in Palestine organized 1909, ceased to operate after founding of Haganah, 1920.
Hashomer Hatza'ir - Zionist socialist youth movement, founded in Europe in 1916, to prepare Jewish youth for kibbutz life in Israel. In addition to Zionism, its ideology meshes Jewish culture with universal culture and values and it retains strong ties to the left-wing kibbutz movement today.
Hatikvah - National anthem of Israel. The words were written by Naftali Herz Imber (about 1870). The melody is a folk song based on a tune which is known in many European countries in various forms.
He-Halutz - Zionist youth movement begun in Eastern Europe to promote settlement, primarily agricultural. Name, meaning "the pioneer," is also term used for vanguard in original conquest of Eretz Yisrael under Joshua.
Hibbat Tzion - Love of Zion. A popular movement for the redemption and rebuilding of Israel which sprang up among the Jews in Russia and spread to other countries at the end of the 19th century. HOVEVEI TZION - its members.
Histadrut - Collective body of trade unions in Israel, comprising a majority of the country's labor force. Established in 1920, the Union originally incorporated all laborers in Eretz Yisrael with the aim of providing for financial and cultural needs of all workers in the country.
Hityashvut - Literally settlement: refers to agricultural settlement founded on collective or cooperative ideas and principles based on self labor.
Homa Umigdal - Tower and stockade. Type of collective settlement built as a stronghold to withstand Arab attacks during the British Mandate period and strategically defending the Jewish people settling in the land.
Hok Hashvut - Law of Return (1950) grants right of immigration to Israel to every Jew.
Illegal Immigration - Immigration to Eretz Yisrael 1940-1948, where most entered British-controlled country through clandestine operations or forged documents. Associated with Ha'apalah or Aliyah Bet.
Intifada - Arabic, literally "shaking off.” Palestinian civil uprising in Gaza and the West Bank, December,1987-September, 1993, to protest Israeli occupation.
Jewish Agency - Established 1929 by Zionist Congress to encourage settlement of Eretz Yisrael and enlist international Jewish support for development projects. In 1948, the State assumed many of its responsibilities. Its emphases are immigration, youth work, land settlement, and education.
The Jewish Brigade ( Habrigada Hayehudit) - The Jewish Brigade consisted of Jewish soldiers from Mandate Palestine who fought within the framework of the British forces against the Nazis in Europe during World War II. The soldiers of the Brigade were the first to come in contact with the Jewish survivors of the Nazi concentration camps in Europe.
Jewish Colonization Association - Organization, founded 1891, to assist Jewish emigration from countries of persecution or depressed economies to countries of opportunity.
Der Judenstaat - "The Jewish State" - the book by Theodor Herzl (founder of the Zionist Movement) in which he expressed his ideas about the form a Jewish state in Eretz Yisrael should take.
Kaf-Tet Benovember 1947 (November 29, 1947) -
The day on which the General Assembly of the United Nations voted in favor of the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states.
Keren Hayesod - Overseas funding organization for the World Zionist Organization, funded in London in 1920.
Kibbush Hashmama - The conquest of the desert. The rehabilitation and settlement of desert regions (the southern part of Israel) through projects of reclamation, settlements, etc.
Kibbutz - Voluntary communal settlement - a practical expression of collective responsibility for everyday life in Israel.
Kibbutz Galuyot - Ingathering of Exiles. Israel is realizing the vision of the Biblical prophets and the ideals of the Zionist movement in serving as the gathering place for Jews from all parts of the world.
Nili - Netzah Yisrael Lo Yishaker: Israel Will Survive Forever. This was the name of a small Jewish underground organization in Palestine during the First World War which helped the British Army liberate Palestine from the Turks.
adapted from Lexicon of Zionism by Barbara Weill,